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Plasmatic HIV-1 soluble gp120 is associated with correlates of immune dysfunction and inflammation in ART-treated individuals with undetectable viremia

Par : Mehdi Benlarbi, Jonathan Richard, Catherine Bourassa, William D Tolbert, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Gabrielle Gendron-Lepage, Mohamed Sylla, Mohamed El-Far, Marc Messier-Peet, Camille Guertin, Isabelle Turcotte, Rémi Fromentin, Myriam Maude Verly, Jérémie Prévost, Andrew Clark, Walther Mothes, Daniel E Kaufmann, Frank Maldarelli, Nicolas Chomont, Philippe Bégin, Cécile Tremblay, Jean-Guy Baril, Benoit Trottier, Sylvie Trottier, Ralf Duerr, Marzena Pazgier, Madeleine Durand, Andrés Finzi
Source : The Journal of infectious diseases - doi:10.1093/infdis/jiad503

CONCLUSIONS: sgp120 may act as a pan toxin causing immune dysfunction and sustained inflammation in a subset of PLWH, contributing to the development of premature comorbidities.

"I Was Trying to Be the Mother to Her That I Didn't Have": Mothers' Experiences of Child Sexual Abuse and Intergenerational Maltreatment

Par : Carley Marshall, Mylène Fernet, Audrey Brassard, Rachel Langevin
Source : Violence against women - doi:10.1177/10778012231216712

Child sexual abuse (CSA) can have lasting negative impacts on one's sense of safety and trust, ultimately affecting the quality of relationships, and increasing the likelihood of future victimization experiences. The present study provides a qualitative description of the themes that were generated through interviews conducted with 23 mothers who experienced CSA (dis)continuity (12 continuity, 11 discontinuity). The mothers described a variety of experiences related to parent-child and romantic...

Diagnosis of esophageal varices by liver stiffness and serum biomarkers in virus-related compensated advanced chronic liver disease

Par : Amine Zoughlami, Jordana Serero, Stephen Congly, Irene Zhao, Julie Zhu, Alnoor Ramji, Curtis Cooper, Philip Wong, Robert Bailey, Carla S Coffin, Giada Sebastiani, Canadian HBV Network
Source : Canadian liver journal - doi:10.3138/canlivj-2022-0047

CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive criteria based on LSM can spare unnecessary EGD in virus-related cACLD. Simple fibrosis biomarkers can ameliorate resource utilization for EVNT screening in low resource settings.

Nature and evolution of the cellular HIV-1 reservoir in children and adolescents

Par : Jade Canape, Madeleine Aby Diallo, Hugo Soudeyns
Source : Virologie (Montrouge, France) - doi:10.1684/vir.2023.1023

Shortly after primary infection, HIV hides in cellular reservoirs from which it becomes difficult or almost impossible to dislodge. In the absence of effective antiretroviral therapy, there is almost invariably resurgence of productive infection leading to a decline in CD4+ T cell counts and progression of HIV disease. The course of HIV infection in adults (horizontal transmission) differs significantly from that acquired in children following perinatal transmission: steady-state viral load is...

Performance evaluation of human cough annotators: optimal metrics and sex differences

Par : Isabel Sanchez-Olivieri, Matthew Rudd, Juan Carlos Gabaldon-Figueira, Francisco Carmona-Torre, Jose Luis Del Pozo, Reid Moorsmith, Lola Jover, Mindaugas Galvosas, Peter Small, Simon Grandjean Lapierre, Carlos Chaccour
Source : BMJ open respiratory research - doi:10.1136/bmjresp-2023-001942

CONCLUSION: Given the decreased interobserver variability in annotation when using cough seconds (vs just coughs) we propose their use for manually annotating cough when assessing of the performance of automatic cough monitoring systems. The differences in cough sound length and epochs size may have important implications for equality in the development of cough monitoring tools.

Variations in CD4 counts during pregnancy in women living with HIV

Par : Isabelle Boucoiran, Hélène C F Côté, Caroline Jodoin, Chelsea Elwood, Fatima Kakkar, Silvie Valois, Deborah M Money, Hugo Soudeyns
Source : HIV medicine - doi:10.1111/hiv.13569

CONCLUSION: A drop of CD4 count to <200 cells/mm³ is uncommon during pregnancy in women living with HIV. Our results suggest that CD4 monitoring only once in pregnancy would be safe in women whose CD4 count is >450 cells/mm³ at the first pregnancy visit.

Validation of ANG-1 and P-SEL as biomarkers of post-COVID-19 conditions using data from the Biobanque québécoise de la COVID-19 (BQC-19)

Par : Eric Yamga, Antoine Soulé, Alain Piché, Amin Emad, Madeleine Durand, Simon Rousseau
Source : Clinical proteomics - doi:10.1186/s12014-023-09436-7

The quest for understanding and managing the long-term effects of COVID-19, often referred to as Long COVID or post-COVID-19 condition (PCC), remains an active research area. Recent findings highlighted angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1) and p-selectin (P-SEL) as potential diagnostic markers, but validation is essential, given the inconsistency in COVID-19 biomarker studies. Leveraging the biobanque québécoise de la COVID-19 (BQC19) biobank, we analyzed the data of 249 participants. Both ANG-1 and P-SEL...

Modeling as Visioning: Exploring the Impact of Criminal Justice Reform on Health of Populations with Substance Use Disorders

Par : Natasha K Martin, Leo Beletsky, Benjamin P Linas, Ahmed Bayoumi, Harold Pollack, Sarah Larney
Source : MDM policy & practice - doi:10.1177/23814683231202984

In the context of historic reckoning with the role of the criminal-legal system as a structural driver of health harms, there is mounting evidence that punitive drug policies have failed to prevent problematic drug use while fueling societal harms. In this explainer article, we discuss how simulation modeling provides a methodological framework to explore the potential outcomes (beneficial and harmful) of various drug policy alternatives, from incremental to radical. We discuss potential...

Recompensation in cirrhosis: unravelling the evolving natural history of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

Par : Gong Feng, Luca Valenti, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Yasser Mahrous Fouad, Yusuf Yilmaz, Won Kim, Giada Sebastiani, Zobair M Younossi, Virginia Hernandez-Gea, Ming-Hua Zheng
Source : Nature reviews. Gastroenterology & hepatology - doi:10.1038/s41575-023-00846-4

Recompensation has gained increasing attention in the field of cirrhosis, particularly in chronic liver disease with a definite aetiology. The current global prevalence of obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasing, but there is currently a lack of a clear definition for recompensation in NAFLD-related cirrhosis. Here, we provide an up-to-date perspective on the natural history of NAFLD, emphasizing the reversible nature of the disease, summarizing possible mechanisms...

Risk of liver-related events in metabolic dysfunction-associated steatohepatitis (MASH) patients with fibrosis: A comparative analysis of various risk stratification criteria

Par : Grazia Pennisi, Marco Enea, Manuel Romero-Gomez, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Vincent Wai-Sun Wong, Anna Ludovica Fracanzani, Victor de Ledinghen, Jacob George, Annalisa Berzigotti, Mauro Viganò, Giada Sebastiani, Roberto Cannella, Adèle Delamarre, Gabriele Di Maria, Naomi F Lange, Adele Tulone, Vito Di Marco, Calogero Cammà, Salvatore Petta
Source : Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) - doi:10.1097/HEP.0000000000000616

CONCLUSIONS: The risk of LRE is similar in patients with high-risk MASH and with F2-F4 fibrosis without MASH. The use of LSM≥10 KPa or AGILE 3+ >0.67 could be an accurate option to identify MASLD patients worthy to be included in clinical trials.

Baseline characteristics of a prospective cohort study of aging and cardiovascular diseases among people living with HIV

Par : Katia Giguère, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Jean-Guy Baril, Brian Conway, Mohamed El-Far, Julian Falutz, Marianne Harris, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Jonathon Leipsic, Mona Loutfy, Samer Mansour, Paul MacPherson, Shari Margolese, Jacqueline M McMillan, Ken Monteith, Melanie C M Murray, Neora Pick, Réjean Thomas, Benoît Trottier, Sylvie Trottier, Christos Tsoukas, Sharon Walmsley, Alex Wong, Cécile Tremblay, Madeleine Durand, Canadian HIV And Aging Cohort Study Group
Source : HIV medicine - doi:10.1111/hiv.13550

CONCLUSIONS: The new assessments added to the CHACS protocol will allow for an even more detailed portrait of the pathways leading to accentuated aging for people living with HIV. Participants in the CHACS cohort display important differences in socio-economic and cardiovascular risk factors according to HIV serostatus. These imbalances must be taken into account for all further inferential analyses.

MicroRNA-25/93 induction by Vpu as a mechanism for counteracting MARCH1-restriction on HIV-1 infectivity in macrophages

Par : Robert Lodge, Zaikun Xu, Mckenna Eklund, Christina Stürzel, Frank Kirchhoff, Michel J Tremblay, Tom C Hobman, Éric A Cohen
Source : mBio - doi:10.1128/mbio.01950-23

The type 1 interferon-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCH1 reduces surface expression of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) and their packaging into nascent virions, a condition that restricts viral infectivity. However, how HIV-1 counters this restriction, notably during infection of macrophages, remains unclear. Here, we show that the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu increases the levels of microRNAs-25 and -93 to target MARCH1 mRNA. By recruiting β-TRCP, a component of the SCF^(β-TRCP) E3 ligase...

Humoral Responses Elicited after a Fifth Dose of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Bivalent Vaccine

Par : Alexandra Tauzin, Guillaume Beaudoin-Bussières, Mehdi Benlarbi, Manon Nayrac, Yuxia Bo, Gabrielle Gendron-Lepage, Halima Medjahed, Josée Perreault, Laurie Gokool, Pascale Arlotto, Chantal Morrisseau, Cécile Tremblay, Daniel E Kaufmann, Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Inès Levade, Marceline Côté, Renée Bazin, Andrés Finzi
Source : Viruses - doi:10.3390/v15091926

While an important part of the world's population is vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2, new variants continue to emerge. We observe that even after a fifth dose of the mRNA bivalent vaccine, most vaccinated individuals have antibodies that poorly neutralize several Omicron subvariants, including BQ.1.1, XBB, XBB.1.5, FD.1.1, and CH.1.1. However, Fc-effector functions remain strong and stable over time against new variants, which may partially explain why vaccines continue to be effective. We also...

Gender, sexual orientation identity, and initiation of amphetamine injecting among people who inject drugs: Examination of an expanding drug era in Montreal, Canada, 2011-19

Par : Stine Bordier Høj, Nanor Minoyan, Geng Zang, Sarah Larney, Julie Bruneau
Source : Drug and alcohol dependence - doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2023.110956

BACKGROUND: Amphetamine injection is expanding in North America and has been associated with male homosexuality among people who inject drugs (PWID). Applying subcultural evolution theory, we examined overall and gender-stratified trends in amphetamine injection and assessed sexual orientation as a gender-specific predictor of initiation among PWID in Montreal, Canada.

Vaccine Effectiveness of non-adjuvanted and adjuvanted trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines in the prevention of influenza-related hospitalization in older adults: A pooled analysis from the Serious Outcomes Surveillance (SOS) Network of the Canadian Immunization Research Network (CIRN)

Par : Henrique Pott, Melissa K Andrew, Zachary Shaffelburg, Michaela K Nichols, Lingyun Ye, May ElSherif, Todd F Hatchette, Jason LeBlanc, Ardith Ambrose, Guy Boivin, William Bowie, Jennie Johnstone, Kevin Katz, Phillipe Lagacé-Wiens, Mark Loeb, Anne McCarthy, Allison McGeer, Andre Poirier, Jeff Powis, David Richardson, Makeda Semret, Stephanie Smith, Daniel Smyth, Grant Stiver, Sylvie Trottier, Louis Valiquette, Duncan Webster, Shelly A McNeil, Serious Outcomes Surveillance SOS Network of the Canadian Immunization Research Network CIRN, Toronto Invasive Bacterial Diseases Network TIBDN

CONCLUSIONS: Adjusting for frailty, aTIV showed statistically significantly better protection than naTIV against influenza-associated hospitalizations in older adults. In future studies, it is important to consider frailty as a significant confounder of VE.

Sarcopenic Obesity Phenotypes in Patients With HIV: Implications for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation

Par : Jovana Milic, Stefano Calza, Samuele Cantergiani, Maddalena Albertini, Altea Gallerani, Marianna Menozzi, Nicole Barp, Vera Todisco, Stefano Renzetti, Federico Motta, Cristina Mussini, Giada Sebastiani, Paolo Raggi, Giovanni Guaraldi
Source : The Canadian journal of cardiology - doi:10.1016/j.cjca.2023.08.027

CONCLUSIONS: There was a large variability in incidence and prevalence of SO phenotypes. The presence of SO may have important implications for cardiovascular prevention and cardiac rehabilitation of PWH who suffered events.

Improving measurement of tuberculosis care cascades to enhance people-centred care

Par : Lena Faust, Pren Naidoo, Guillermo Caceres-Cardenas, César Ugarte-Gil, Monde Muyoyeta, Andrew D Kerkhoff, Karikalan Nagarajan, Srinath Satyanarayana, Niaina Rakotosamimanana, Simon Grandjean Lapierre, Olusola Adedeji Adejumo, Joseph Kuye, Charity Oga-Omenka, Madhukar Pai, Ramnath Subbaraman
Source : The Lancet. Infectious diseases - doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(23)00375-4

Care cascades represent the proportion of people reaching milestones in care for a disease and are widely used to track progress towards global targets for HIV and other diseases. Despite recent progress in estimating care cascades for tuberculosis (TB) disease, they have not been routinely applied at national and subnational levels, representing a lost opportunity for public health impact. As researchers who have estimated TB care cascades in high-incidence countries (India, Madagascar,...

Switch to a raltegravir-based antiretroviral regimen in people with HIV and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized controlled trial

Par : Mohamed Shengir, Bertrand Lebouche, Wesal Elgretli, Sahar Saeed, Agnihotram V Ramanakumar, Andreas Giannakis, Alexandra De Pokomandy, Joseph Cox, Cecilia Costiniuk, Jean-Pierre Routy, Marina B Klein, Giada Sebastiani
Source : HIV medicine - doi:10.1111/hiv.13531

INTRODUCTION: The effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART), particularly integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in people with HIV remains unclear. We evaluated the effect of switching non-INSTI backbone antiretroviral medications to raltegravir on NAFLD and metabolic parameters.

Role of fatty liver in the epidemic of advanced chronic liver disease among people with HIV: protocol for the Canadian LIVEHIV multicentre prospective cohort

Par : Felice Cinque, Sahar Saeed, Dana Kablawi, Luz Ramos Ballesteros, Wesal Elgretli, Erica E M Moodie, Colleen Price, Ken Monteith, Curtis Cooper, Sharon L Walmsley, Neora Pick, Melanie C M Murray, Joseph Cox, Nadine Kronfli, Cecilia T Costiniuk, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Jean-Pierre Routy, Bertrand Lebouché, Marina B Klein, Giada Sebastiani
Source : BMJ open - doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2023-076547

INTRODUCTION: Advanced chronic liver disease (ACLD) is a major cause of death for people with HIV (PWH). While viral hepatitis coinfections are largely responsible for this trend, metabolic dysfunction-associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) is an emerging concern for PWH. We aimed to assess the contribution of MASLD to incident ACLD in PWH.

Immunological Monitoring in Hepatitis C Virus Controlled Human Infection Model

Par : Naglaa H Shoukry, Andrea L Cox, Christopher M Walker
Source : Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America - doi:10.1093/cid/ciad359

Controlled human infection model trials for hepatitis C virus represent an important opportunity to identify correlates of protective immunity against a well-characterized inoculum of hepatitis C virus and how such responses are modified by vaccination. In this article, we discuss the approach to immunological monitoring during such trials, including a set of recommendations for optimal sampling schedule and preferred immunological assays to examine the different arms of the immune response. We...

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