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Sex-Dependent Hepatoprotective Role of IL-22 Receptor Signaling in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-Related Fibrosis

Par : Mohamed N Abdelnabi, Manuel Flores Molina, Geneviève Soucy, Vincent Quoc-Huy Trinh, Nathalie Bédard, Sabrina Mazouz, Nathalie Jouvet, Jessica Dion, Sarah Tran, Marc Bilodeau, Jennifer L Estall, Naglaa H Shoukry
Source : Cellular and molecular gastroenterology and hepatology - doi:10.1016/j.jcmgh.2022.08.001

CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a sex-dependent hepatoprotective antiapoptotic effect of IL-22 receptor signaling during NAFLD-related liver injury in females.

FoxP3+ CD8 T-cells in acute HIV infection and following early antiretroviral therapy initiation

Par : Alexis Yero, Tao Shi, Jean-Pierre Routy, Cécile Tremblay, Madeleine Durand, Cecilia T Costiniuk, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian
Source : Frontiers in immunology - doi:10.3389/fimmu.2022.962912

CONCLUSIONS: Although early ART normalized total FoxP3^(+) CD8 T-cells frequencies, it did not affect the persistent elevation of the gut-homing potential of CD39^(+) and LAP(TGF-β1)^(+) FoxP3^(+) CD8 T-cell, which may contribute to immune dysfunction.

Illicit Substance Use and the COVID-19 Pandemic in the United States: A Scoping Review and Characterization of Research Evidence in Unprecedented Times

Par : Anh Truc Vo, Thomas Patton, Amy Peacock, Sarah Larney, Annick Borquez
Source : International journal of environmental research and public health - doi:10.3390/ijerph19148883

We carried out a scoping review to characterize the primary quantitative evidence addressing changes in key individual/structural determinants of substance use risks and health outcomes over the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States (US). We systematically queried the LitCovid database for US-only studies without date restrictions (up to 6 August 2021). We extracted quantitative data from articles addressing changes in: (a) illicit substance use...

Low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (LOW-TMP): protocol for a phase III randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-comparison trial

Par : Zahra N Sohani, Guillaume Butler-Laporte, Andrew Aw, Sara Belga, Andrea Benedetti, Alex Carignan, Matthew P Cheng, Bryan Coburn, Cecilia T Costiniuk, Nicole Ezer, Dan Gregson, Andrew Johnson, Kosar Khwaja, Alexander Lawandi, Victor Leung, Sylvain Lother, Derek MacFadden, Michaeline McGuinty, Leighanne Parkes, Salman Qureshi, Valerie Roy, Barret Rush, Ilan Schwartz, Miranda So, Ranjani Somayaji, Darrell Tan, Emilie Trinh, Todd C Lee, Emily G McDonald
Source : BMJ open - doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-053039

INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is an opportunistic infection of immunocompromised hosts with significant morbidity and mortality. The current standard of care, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) at a dose of 15-20 mg/kg/day, is associated with serious adverse drug events (ADE) in 20%-60% of patients. ADEs include hypersensitivity reactions, drug-induced liver injury, cytopenias and renal failure, all of which can be treatment limiting. In a recent meta-analysis of...

Trends in opioid analgesic utilisation among people with a history of opioid dependence

Par : Chrianna Bharat, Natasa Gisev, Sebastiano Barbieri, Timothy Dobbins, Sarah Larney, Michael Farrell, Louisa Degenhardt
Source : Drug and alcohol dependence - doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109548

CONCLUSIONS: People with opioid dependence had high rates of recent psychotropic medicine utilisation and current OAT enrolment at the time of opioid analgesic initiation. OAT was associated with a significant reduction in opioid analgesic dispensing.

Cross-sectional comparison of age- and gender-related comorbidities in people living with HIV in Canada

Par : Jason M Brunetta, Jean-Guy Baril, Joseph J de Wet, Chris Fraser, Gary Rubin, Réjean Thomas, Hugues Loemba, Ken Logue, Michael Silverman, Jean Palmart, Haiyan Jiang, René-Pierre Lorgeoux, Harout Tossonian, Connie J Kim, Alexander Wong
Source : Medicine - doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000029850

Because antiretroviral therapy (ART) is allowing people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) to survive longer, they are developing more age-related comorbidities. We evaluated the effects of age and gender on the burden of age-related comorbidities among PLWH. In this retrospective real-world study, de-identified data were extracted from the medical charts of 2000 HIV-positive adults on ART across 10 sites in Canada. The prevalence of age-related comorbidities was determined in 6 age...

Making cough count in tuberculosis care

Par : Alexandra J Zimmer, César Ugarte-Gil, Rahul Pathri, Puneet Dewan, Devan Jaganath, Adithya Cattamanchi, Madhukar Pai, Simon Grandjean Lapierre
Source : Communications medicine - doi:10.1038/s43856-022-00149-w

Cough assessment is central to the clinical management of respiratory diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), but strategies to objectively and unobtrusively measure cough are lacking. Acoustic epidemiology is an emerging field that uses technology to detect cough sounds and analyze cough patterns to improve health outcomes among people with respiratory conditions linked to cough. This field is increasingly exploring the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) for more advanced applications,...

Vaginal microbiota associated with oncogenic HPV in a cohort of HPV-vaccinated women living with HIV

Par : Elisabeth McClymont, Arianne Y Albert, Christine Wang, Scott J Dos Santos, François Coutlée, Marette Lee, Sharon Walmsley, Nancy Lipsky, Mona Loutfy, Sylvie Trottier, Fiona Smaill, Marina B Klein, Mark H Yudin, Marianne Harris, Wendy Wobeser, Janet E Hill, Deborah M Money, CTN 236 HPV in HIV Study Team
Source : International journal of STD & AIDS - doi:10.1177/09564624221109686

CONCLUSIONS: No significant associations between taxa, CST, or microbial diversity and HPV-related outcomes were found. However, we observed weak associations between a dysbiotic microbiome and specific species, including Gardnerella, Porphyromonas, and Prevotella species, with incident HPV infection.

Do intentions lead to action? Results of a longitudinal study assessing determinants of Tdap vaccine uptake during pregnancy in Quebec, Canada

Par : Eve Dubé, Marie-Eve Trottier, Maryline Vivion, Manale Ouakki, Nicholas Brousseau, Maryse Guay, Zineb Laghdir, Isabelle Boucoiran, Bruce Tapiéro, Caroline Quach
Source : BMC pregnancy and childbirth - doi:10.1186/s12884-022-04809-6

CONCLUSION: We observed high vaccine acceptance and uptake of pertussis vaccine in pregnancy. The core components of the TPB (intention, social norms and perceived behavioral control) were all predictors of vaccine uptake, but our multivariate analysis also showed that other determinants were influential: being sufficiently informed about Tdap vaccination, not having vaccine safety concerns, and anticipated regret if unvaccinated. To ensure high vaccine acceptance and uptake in pregnancy, strong...

Acoustic surveillance of cough for detecting respiratory disease using artificial intelligence

Par : Juan C Gabaldón-Figueira, Eric Keen, Gerard Giménez, Virginia Orrillo, Isabel Blavia, Dominique Hélène Doré, Nuria Armendáriz, Juliane Chaccour, Alejandro Fernandez-Montero, Javier Bartolomé, Nita Umashankar, Peter Small, Simon Grandjean Lapierre, Carlos Chaccour
Source : ERJ open research - doi:10.1183/23120541.00053-2022

RESEARCH QUESTION: Can smartphones be used to detect individual and population-level changes in cough frequency that correlate with the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other respiratory infections?

The impact of opioid agonist treatment on hospitalisations for injecting-related diseases among an opioid dependent population: A retrospective data linkage study

Par : Samantha Colledge-Frisby, Nicola Jones, Sarah Larney, Amy Peacock, Dan Lewer, Thomas D Brothers, Matthew Hickman, Michael Farrell, Louisa Degenhardt
Source : Drug and alcohol dependence - doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109494

BACKGROUND: Injecting-related bacterial and fungal infections cause substantial illness and disability among people who use illicit drugs. Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) reduces injecting frequency and the transmission of blood borne viruses. We estimated the impact of OAT on hospitalisations for non-viral infections and examine trends in incidence over time.

Covid-19 vaccine immunogenicity in people living with HIV-1

Par : Lauriane Nault, Lorie Marchitto, Guillaume Goyette, Daniel Tremblay-Sher, Claude Fortin, Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Benoît Trottier, Jonathan Richard, Madeleine Durand, Daniel Kaufmann, Andrés Finzi, Cécile Tremblay

CONCLUSION: HIV-positive individuals with CD4 counts over 250 cells/mm³ have an anti-RBD IgG response similar to the general population. However, HIV-positive individuals with the lowest CD4 counts (<250 cells/mm³) have a weaker response. These data would support the hypothesis that a booster dose might be needed in this subgroup of HIV-positive individuals, depending on their response to the second dose.

High-throughput digital cough recording on a university campus: A SARS-CoV-2-negative curated open database and operational template for acoustic screening of respiratory diseases

Par : Eric M Keen, Emily J True, Alyssa R Summers, Everett Clinton Smith, Joe Brew, Simon Grandjean Lapierre
Source : Digital health - doi:10.1177/20552076221097513

CONCLUSION: The value of acoustic screening tools depends upon our ability to develop and implement them reliably and quickly. For that to happen, high-quality datasets and logistical insights must be collected and shared on an ongoing basis.

The impact of opioid agonist treatment on fatal and non-fatal drug overdose among people with a history of opioid dependence in NSW, Australia, 2001-2018: Findings from the OATS retrospective linkage study

Par : Nicola R Jones, Matthew Hickman, Suzanne Nielsen, Sarah Larney, Timothy Dobbins, Robert Ali, Louisa Degenhardt
Source : Drug and alcohol dependence - doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109464

CONCLUSIONS: Retention on opioid agonist treatment is protective against drug related overdose. There is elevated risk of non-fatal overdose at treatment initiation that is not evident for fatal overdose, but the first month of treatment cessation is a critical period for both non-fatal and fatal overdose. These findings emphasize the importance of treatment retention and interventions for polysubstance overdose at cessation.

Associative Prediction of Carotid Artery Plaques Based on Ultrasound Strain Imaging and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in People Living With HIV and Age-Matched Control Subjects of the CHACS Cohort

Par : Marie-Hélène Roy Cardinal, Madeleine Durand, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Gilles Soulez, Cécile Tremblay, Guy Cloutier, Canadian HIV and Aging Cohort Study
Source : Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) - doi:10.1097/QAI.0000000000003016

CONCLUSIONS: Strain elastography adds to traditional cardiovascular risk factors for identifying individuals with carotid artery plaques.

M2HepPrEP: study protocol for a multi-site multi-setting randomized controlled trial of integrated HIV prevention and HCV care for PWID

Par : Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Daniel J Feaster, Lisa R Metsch, Bruce R Shackman, Christine Loignon, Bohdan Nosyk, Hansel Tookes, Czarina N Behrends, Nelson Arruda, Oluleye Adigun, Marie-Eve Goyer, Michael A Kolber, Jean-Francois Mary, Allan E Rodriguez, Iveth G Yanez, Yue Pan, Rania Khemiri, Lauren Gooden, Aïssata Sako, Julie Bruneau

BACKGROUND: Opioid use is escalating in North America and comes with a multitude of health consequences, including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) outbreaks among persons who inject drugs (PWID). HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and HCV treatment regimens have transformative potential to address these co-occurring epidemics. Evaluation of innovative multi-modal approaches, integrating harm reduction, opioid agonist therapy (OAT), PrEP, and HCV treatment is required. The aim of this study is...

Self-reported impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic among people who use drugs: a rapid assessment study in Montreal, Canada

Par : Nanor Minoyan, Stine Bordier Høj, Camille Zolopa, Dragos Vlad, Julie Bruneau, Sarah Larney
Source : Harm reduction journal - doi:10.1186/s12954-022-00620-w

CONCLUSIONS: This snapshot suggests mixed impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on PWUD in Montreal in the months following declaration of a provincial health emergency. There were signals of increased exposure to high-risk environments as well as deteriorations in access to health services. Pandemic-related measures may have lasting impacts among vulnerable subgroups; continued monitoring is warranted.

Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among blood donors in Québec: an update from a serial cross-sectional study

Par : Antoine Lewin, Gaston De Serres, Yves Grégoire, Josée Perreault, Mathieu Drouin, Marie-Josée Fournier, Tony Tremblay, Julie Beaudoin, Amélie Boivin, Guillaume Goyette, Andrés Finzi, Renée Bazin, Marc Germain, Gilles Delage, Christian Renaud
Source : Canadian journal of public health = Revue canadienne de sante publique - doi:10.17269/s41997-022-00622-y

CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies significantly increased in Québec since spring 2020, with younger persons and ethnic minorities being disproportionately affected. When compared with the cumulative incidence rate reported by public health authorities (i.e., 3.3% as of March 11, 2021), these results suggest that a substantial proportion of infections remain undetected despite improvements in access to COVID-19 testing.

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