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Association Between Markers of Vulnerability for Cannabis-Related Harms and Source of Supply: Secondary Analysis of a Representative Population Survey

Par : Sarah Drouin, Élie Rizkallah, Florence Conus, Sarah Larney, Navdeep Kaur, Codjo Djignefa Djade, Didier Jutras-Aswad
Source : Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie - doi:10.1177/07067437221128470

CONCLUSIONS: No association was detected between the source of cannabis supply and potential vulnerability indicators of cannabis-related harms, but SQDC consumers were more aware of the cannabinoid content of the products purchased. These results suggest that the regulated government supply in Quebec is reaching a substantial portion of those with potential high vulnerability to harm. Whether this knowledge translates into a reduction in the negative consequences related to consumption is still...

Immune checkpoint expression on HIV-specific CD4+ T cells and response to their blockade are dependent on lineage and function

Par : Elsa Brunet-Ratnasingham, Antigoni Morou, Mathieu Dubé, Julia Niessl, Amy E Baxter, Olivier Tastet, Nathalie Brassard, Gloria Ortega-Delgado, Roxanne Charlebois, Gordon J Freeman, Cécile Tremblay, Jean-Pierre Routy, Daniel E Kaufmann
Source : EBioMedicine - doi:10.1016/j.ebiom.2022.104254

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) partially reverses the dysfunctional state of antigen-specific T cell in chronic infections. However, its impact on the diverse subsets of CD4+ T cells in humans is largely unknown.

Experiences of Migrant People Living with HIV in a Multidisciplinary HIV Care Setting with Rapid B/F/TAF Initiation and Cost-Covered Treatment: The 'ASAP' Study

Par : Anish K Arora, Kim Engler, David Lessard, Nadine Kronfli, Adriana Rodriguez-Cruz, Edmundo Huerta, Benoit Lemire, Jean-Pierre Routy, René Wittmer, Joseph Cox, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Lina Del Balso, Marina Klein, Giada Sebastiani, Isabelle Vedel, Amélie Quesnel-Vallée, None Asap Migrant Advisory Committee, Bertrand Lebouché
Source : Journal of personalized medicine - doi:10.3390/jpm12091497

This study aimed to explore the experiences of migrant people living with HIV (MLWH) enrolled in a Montreal-based multidisciplinary HIV care clinic with rapid antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation and cost-covered ART. Between February 2020 and March 2022, 32 interviews were conducted with 16 MLWH at three time-points (16 after 1 week of ART initiation, 8 after 24 weeks, 8 after 48 weeks). Interviews were analyzed via the Framework Method. Thirty categories were identified, capturing...

Measuring progress towards reaching zero new HIV acquisitions among key populations in Québec (Canada) using routine surveillance data: a mathematical modelling study

Par : Carla M Doyle, Joseph Cox, Rachael M Milwid, Raphaël Bitera, Charlotte Lanièce Delaunay, Michel Alary, Gilles Lambert, Cécile Tremblay, Sharmistha Mishra, Mathieu Maheu-Giroux
Source : Journal of the International AIDS Society - doi:10.1002/jia2.25994

CONCLUSIONS: HIV incidence has drastically decreased in MSM and PWID across Québec, alongside significant improvements in diagnosis and treatment coverage-and the 2013 introduction of pre-exposure prophylaxis. Despite this, HIV transmission continued. Effective efforts to halt this transmission and rapidly diagnose people who acquired HIV, especially among younger MSM, are needed to achieve elimination. Further, as the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV transmission are understood,...

Humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 Spike variants after mRNA vaccination in solid organ transplant recipients

Par : Alexandra Tauzin, Guillaume Beaudoin-Bussières, Shang Yu Gong, Debashree Chatterjee, Gabrielle Gendron-Lepage, Catherine Bourassa, Guillaume Goyette, Normand Racine, Zineb Khrifi, Julie Turgeon, Cécile Tremblay, Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Daniel E Kaufmann, Héloïse Cardinal, Marc Cloutier, Renée Bazin, Ralf Duerr, Mélanie Dieudé, Marie-Josée Hébert, Andrés Finzi
Source : iScience - doi:10.1016/j.isci.2022.104990

Although SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination has been shown to be safe and effective in the general population, immunocompromised solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) were reported to have impaired immune responses after one or two doses of vaccine. In this study, we examined humoral responses induced after the second and the third dose of mRNA vaccine in different SOTR (kidney, liver, lung, and heart). Compared to a cohort of SARS-CoV-2 naïve immunocompetent health care workers (HCWs), the second...

Cannabinoids and Chronic Liver Diseases

Par : Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa, Giada Sebastiani, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Cecilia T Costiniuk
Source : International journal of molecular sciences - doi:10.3390/ijms23169423

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcohol-induced liver disease (ALD), and viral hepatitis are the main causes of morbidity and mortality related to chronic liver diseases (CLDs) worldwide. New therapeutic approaches to prevent or reverse these liver disorders are thus emerging. Although their etiologies differ, these CLDs all have in common a significant dysregulation of liver metabolism that is closely linked to the perturbation of the hepatic endocannabinoid system (eCBS) and...

Current considerations for clinical management and care of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Insights from the 1st International Workshop of the Canadian NASH Network (CanNASH)

Par : Giada Sebastiani, Keyur Patel, Vlad Ratziu, Jordan J Feld, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Massimo Pinzani, Salvatore Petta, Annalisa Berzigotti, Peter Metrakos, Naglaa Shoukry, Elizabeth M Brunt, An Tang, Jeremy F Cobbold, Jean-Marie Ekoe, Karen Seto, Peter Ghali, Stéphanie Chevalier, Quentin M Anstee, Heather Watson, Harpreet Bajaj, James Stone, Mark G Swain, Alnoor Ramji
Source : Canadian liver journal - doi:10.3138/canlivj-2021-0030

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects approximately 8 million Canadians. NAFLD refers to a disease spectrum ranging from bland steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Nearly 25% of patients with NAFLD develop NASH, which can progress to liver cirrhosis and related end-stage complications. Type 2 diabetes and obesity represent the main risk factors for the disease. The Canadian NASH Network is a national collaborative organization of health care professionals and...

Sex-Dependent Hepatoprotective Role of IL-22 Receptor Signaling in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease-Related Fibrosis

Par : Mohamed N Abdelnabi, Manuel Flores Molina, Geneviève Soucy, Vincent Quoc-Huy Trinh, Nathalie Bédard, Sabrina Mazouz, Nathalie Jouvet, Jessica Dion, Sarah Tran, Marc Bilodeau, Jennifer L Estall, Naglaa H Shoukry
Source : Cellular and molecular gastroenterology and hepatology - doi:10.1016/j.jcmgh.2022.08.001

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a sex-dependent hepatoprotective antiapoptotic effect of IL22-receptor signaling during NAFLD-related liver injury in females.

FoxP3+ CD8 T-cells in acute HIV infection and following early antiretroviral therapy initiation

Par : Alexis Yero, Tao Shi, Jean-Pierre Routy, Cécile Tremblay, Madeleine Durand, Cecilia T Costiniuk, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian
Source : Frontiers in immunology - doi:10.3389/fimmu.2022.962912

CONCLUSIONS: Although early ART normalized total FoxP3^(+) CD8 T-cells frequencies, it did not affect the persistent elevation of the gut-homing potential of CD39^(+) and LAP(TGF-β1)^(+) FoxP3^(+) CD8 T-cell, which may contribute to immune dysfunction.

Illicit Substance Use and the COVID-19 Pandemic in the United States: A Scoping Review and Characterization of Research Evidence in Unprecedented Times

Par : Anh Truc Vo, Thomas Patton, Amy Peacock, Sarah Larney, Annick Borquez
Source : International journal of environmental research and public health - doi:10.3390/ijerph19148883

We carried out a scoping review to characterize the primary quantitative evidence addressing changes in key individual/structural determinants of substance use risks and health outcomes over the first two waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States (US). We systematically queried the LitCovid database for US-only studies without date restrictions (up to 6 August 2021). We extracted quantitative data from articles addressing changes in: (a) illicit substance use...

Low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for the treatment of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (LOW-TMP): protocol for a phase III randomised, placebo-controlled, dose-comparison trial

Par : Zahra N Sohani, Guillaume Butler-Laporte, Andrew Aw, Sara Belga, Andrea Benedetti, Alex Carignan, Matthew P Cheng, Bryan Coburn, Cecilia T Costiniuk, Nicole Ezer, Dan Gregson, Andrew Johnson, Kosar Khwaja, Alexander Lawandi, Victor Leung, Sylvain Lother, Derek MacFadden, Michaeline McGuinty, Leighanne Parkes, Salman Qureshi, Valerie Roy, Barret Rush, Ilan Schwartz, Miranda So, Ranjani Somayaji, Darrell Tan, Emilie Trinh, Todd C Lee, Emily G McDonald
Source : BMJ open - doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-053039

INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is an opportunistic infection of immunocompromised hosts with significant morbidity and mortality. The current standard of care, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) at a dose of 15-20 mg/kg/day, is associated with serious adverse drug events (ADE) in 20%-60% of patients. ADEs include hypersensitivity reactions, drug-induced liver injury, cytopenias and renal failure, all of which can be treatment limiting. In a recent meta-analysis of...

Trends in opioid analgesic utilisation among people with a history of opioid dependence

Par : Chrianna Bharat, Natasa Gisev, Sebastiano Barbieri, Timothy Dobbins, Sarah Larney, Michael Farrell, Louisa Degenhardt
Source : Drug and alcohol dependence - doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109548

CONCLUSIONS: People with opioid dependence had high rates of recent psychotropic medicine utilisation and current OAT enrolment at the time of opioid analgesic initiation. OAT was associated with a significant reduction in opioid analgesic dispensing.

Cross-sectional comparison of age- and gender-related comorbidities in people living with HIV in Canada

Par : Jason M Brunetta, Jean-Guy Baril, Joseph J de Wet, Chris Fraser, Gary Rubin, Réjean Thomas, Hugues Loemba, Ken Logue, Michael Silverman, Jean Palmart, Haiyan Jiang, René-Pierre Lorgeoux, Harout Tossonian, Connie J Kim, Alexander Wong
Source : Medicine - doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000029850

Because antiretroviral therapy (ART) is allowing people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) to survive longer, they are developing more age-related comorbidities. We evaluated the effects of age and gender on the burden of age-related comorbidities among PLWH. In this retrospective real-world study, de-identified data were extracted from the medical charts of 2000 HIV-positive adults on ART across 10 sites in Canada. The prevalence of age-related comorbidities was determined in 6 age...

Making cough count in tuberculosis care

Par : Alexandra J Zimmer, César Ugarte-Gil, Rahul Pathri, Puneet Dewan, Devan Jaganath, Adithya Cattamanchi, Madhukar Pai, Simon Grandjean Lapierre
Source : Communications medicine - doi:10.1038/s43856-022-00149-w

Cough assessment is central to the clinical management of respiratory diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), but strategies to objectively and unobtrusively measure cough are lacking. Acoustic epidemiology is an emerging field that uses technology to detect cough sounds and analyze cough patterns to improve health outcomes among people with respiratory conditions linked to cough. This field is increasingly exploring the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) for more advanced applications,...

Vaginal microbiota associated with oncogenic HPV in a cohort of HPV-vaccinated women living with HIV

Par : Elisabeth McClymont, Arianne Y Albert, Christine Wang, Scott J Dos Santos, François Coutlée, Marette Lee, Sharon Walmsley, Nancy Lipsky, Mona Loutfy, Sylvie Trottier, Fiona Smaill, Marina B Klein, Mark H Yudin, Marianne Harris, Wendy Wobeser, Janet E Hill, Deborah M Money, CTN 236 HPV in HIV Study Team
Source : International journal of STD & AIDS - doi:10.1177/09564624221109686

CONCLUSIONS: No significant associations between taxa, CST, or microbial diversity and HPV-related outcomes were found. However, we observed weak associations between a dysbiotic microbiome and specific species, including Gardnerella, Porphyromonas, and Prevotella species, with incident HPV infection.

Do intentions lead to action? Results of a longitudinal study assessing determinants of Tdap vaccine uptake during pregnancy in Quebec, Canada

Par : Eve Dubé, Marie-Eve Trottier, Maryline Vivion, Manale Ouakki, Nicholas Brousseau, Maryse Guay, Zineb Laghdir, Isabelle Boucoiran, Bruce Tapiéro, Caroline Quach
Source : BMC pregnancy and childbirth - doi:10.1186/s12884-022-04809-6

CONCLUSION: We observed high vaccine acceptance and uptake of pertussis vaccine in pregnancy. The core components of the TPB (intention, social norms and perceived behavioral control) were all predictors of vaccine uptake, but our multivariate analysis also showed that other determinants were influential: being sufficiently informed about Tdap vaccination, not having vaccine safety concerns, and anticipated regret if unvaccinated. To ensure high vaccine acceptance and uptake in pregnancy, strong...

Acoustic surveillance of cough for detecting respiratory disease using artificial intelligence

Par : Juan C Gabaldón-Figueira, Eric Keen, Gerard Giménez, Virginia Orrillo, Isabel Blavia, Dominique Hélène Doré, Nuria Armendáriz, Juliane Chaccour, Alejandro Fernandez-Montero, Javier Bartolomé, Nita Umashankar, Peter Small, Simon Grandjean Lapierre, Carlos Chaccour
Source : ERJ open research - doi:10.1183/23120541.00053-2022

RESEARCH QUESTION: Can smartphones be used to detect individual and population-level changes in cough frequency that correlate with the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other respiratory infections?

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