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Do intentions lead to action? Results of a longitudinal study assessing determinants of Tdap vaccine uptake during pregnancy in Quebec, Canada

Par : Eve Dubé, Marie-Eve Trottier, Maryline Vivion, Manale Ouakki, Nicholas Brousseau, Maryse Guay, Zineb Laghdir, Isabelle Boucoiran, Bruce Tapiéro, Caroline Quach
Source : BMC pregnancy and childbirth - doi:10.1186/s12884-022-04809-6

CONCLUSION: We observed high vaccine acceptance and uptake of pertussis vaccine in pregnancy. The core components of the TPB (intention, social norms and perceived behavioral control) were all predictors of vaccine uptake, but our multivariate analysis also showed that other determinants were influential: being sufficiently informed about Tdap vaccination, not having vaccine safety concerns, and anticipated regret if unvaccinated. To ensure high vaccine acceptance and uptake in pregnancy, strong...

Acoustic surveillance of cough for detecting respiratory disease using artificial intelligence

Par : Juan C Gabaldón-Figueira, Eric Keen, Gerard Giménez, Virginia Orrillo, Isabel Blavia, Dominique Hélène Doré, Nuria Armendáriz, Juliane Chaccour, Alejandro Fernandez-Montero, Javier Bartolomé, Nita Umashankar, Peter Small, Simon Grandjean Lapierre, Carlos Chaccour
Source : ERJ open research - doi:10.1183/23120541.00053-2022

RESEARCH QUESTION: Can smartphones be used to detect individual and population-level changes in cough frequency that correlate with the incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and other respiratory infections?

The impact of opioid agonist treatment on hospitalisations for injecting-related diseases among an opioid dependent population: A retrospective data linkage study

Par : Samantha Colledge-Frisby, Nicola Jones, Sarah Larney, Amy Peacock, Dan Lewer, Thomas D Brothers, Matthew Hickman, Michael Farrell, Louisa Degenhardt
Source : Drug and alcohol dependence - doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109494

BACKGROUND: Injecting-related bacterial and fungal infections cause substantial illness and disability among people who use illicit drugs. Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) reduces injecting frequency and the transmission of blood borne viruses. We estimated the impact of OAT on hospitalisations for non-viral infections and examine trends in incidence over time.

Covid-19 vaccine immunogenicity in people living with HIV-1

Par : Lauriane Nault, Lorie Marchitto, Guillaume Goyette, Daniel Tremblay-Sher, Claude Fortin, Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Benoît Trottier, Jonathan Richard, Madeleine Durand, Daniel Kaufmann, Andrés Finzi, Cécile Tremblay

CONCLUSION: HIV-positive individuals with CD4 counts over 250 cells/mm³ have an anti-RBD IgG response similar to the general population. However, HIV-positive individuals with the lowest CD4 counts (<250 cells/mm³) have a weaker response. These data would support the hypothesis that a booster dose might be needed in this subgroup of HIV-positive individuals, depending on their response to the second dose.

High-throughput digital cough recording on a university campus: A SARS-CoV-2-negative curated open database and operational template for acoustic screening of respiratory diseases

Par : Eric M Keen, Emily J True, Alyssa R Summers, Everett Clinton Smith, Joe Brew, Simon Grandjean Lapierre
Source : Digital health - doi:10.1177/20552076221097513

CONCLUSION: The value of acoustic screening tools depends upon our ability to develop and implement them reliably and quickly. For that to happen, high-quality datasets and logistical insights must be collected and shared on an ongoing basis.

The impact of opioid agonist treatment on fatal and non-fatal drug overdose among people with a history of opioid dependence in NSW, Australia, 2001-2018: Findings from the OATS retrospective linkage study

Par : Nicola R Jones, Matthew Hickman, Suzanne Nielsen, Sarah Larney, Timothy Dobbins, Robert Ali, Louisa Degenhardt
Source : Drug and alcohol dependence - doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2022.109464

CONCLUSIONS: Retention on opioid agonist treatment is protective against drug related overdose. There is elevated risk of non-fatal overdose at treatment initiation that is not evident for fatal overdose, but the first month of treatment cessation is a critical period for both non-fatal and fatal overdose. These findings emphasize the importance of treatment retention and interventions for polysubstance overdose at cessation.

Associative prediction of carotid artery plaques based on ultrasound strain imaging and cardiovascular risk factors in people living with HIV and age-matched control subjects of the CHACS cohort

Par : Marie-Hélène Roy Cardinal, Madeleine Durand, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Gilles Soulez, Cécile Tremblay, Guy Cloutier Eng, Canadian HIV and Aging Cohort Study
Source : Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) - doi:10.1097/QAI.0000000000003016

CONCLUSION: Strain elastography adds to traditional cardiovascular risk factors for identifying individuals with carotid artery plaques.

M2HepPrEP: study protocol for a multi-site multi-setting randomized controlled trial of integrated HIV prevention and HCV care for PWID

Par : Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Daniel J Feaster, Lisa R Metsch, Bruce R Shackman, Christine Loignon, Bohdan Nosyk, Hansel Tookes, Czarina N Behrends, Nelson Arruda, Oluleye Adigun, Marie-Eve Goyer, Michael A Kolber, Jean-Francois Mary, Allan E Rodriguez, Iveth G Yanez, Yue Pan, Rania Khemiri, Lauren Gooden, Aïssata Sako, Julie Bruneau

BACKGROUND: Opioid use is escalating in North America and comes with a multitude of health consequences, including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) outbreaks among persons who inject drugs (PWID). HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and HCV treatment regimens have transformative potential to address these co-occurring epidemics. Evaluation of innovative multi-modal approaches, integrating harm reduction, opioid agonist therapy (OAT), PrEP, and HCV treatment is required. The aim of this study is...

Self-reported impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic among people who use drugs: a rapid assessment study in Montreal, Canada

Par : Nanor Minoyan, Stine Bordier Høj, Camille Zolopa, Dragos Vlad, Julie Bruneau, Sarah Larney
Source : Harm reduction journal - doi:10.1186/s12954-022-00620-w

CONCLUSIONS: This snapshot suggests mixed impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on PWUD in Montreal in the months following declaration of a provincial health emergency. There were signals of increased exposure to high-risk environments as well as deteriorations in access to health services. Pandemic-related measures may have lasting impacts among vulnerable subgroups; continued monitoring is warranted.

Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies among blood donors in Québec: an update from a serial cross-sectional study

Par : Antoine Lewin, Gaston De Serres, Yves Grégoire, Josée Perreault, Mathieu Drouin, Marie-Josée Fournier, Tony Tremblay, Julie Beaudoin, Amélie Boivin, Guillaume Goyette, Andrés Finzi, Renée Bazin, Marc Germain, Gilles Delage, Christian Renaud
Source : Canadian journal of public health = Revue canadienne de sante publique - doi:10.17269/s41997-022-00622-y

CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies significantly increased in Québec since spring 2020, with younger persons and ethnic minorities being disproportionately affected. When compared with the cumulative incidence rate reported by public health authorities (i.e., 3.3% as of March 11, 2021), these results suggest that a substantial proportion of infections remain undetected despite improvements in access to COVID-19 testing.

The process of learning the autogenic training relaxation technique and its benefits on the wellness of people living with HIV

Par : Maria Pilar Ramirez Garcia, Jérôme Leclerc-Loiselle, José Côté, Marie-Josée Brouillette, Réjean Thomas
Source : BMC complementary medicine and therapies - doi:10.1186/s12906-022-03557-6

CONCLUSIONS: People living with HIV see learning AT as a progressive process, in which wellness is a major outcome and a contributing factor in developing a regular practice.

Recalibrated estimates of non-bacteremic and bacteremic pneumococcal community acquired pneumonia in hospitalized Canadian adults from 2010 to 2017 with addition of an extended spectrum serotype-specific urine antigen detection assay

Par : Jason J LeBlanc, May ElSherif, Lingyun Ye, Donna MacKinnon-Cameron, Ardith Ambrose, Todd F Hatchette, Amanda L S Lang, Hayley D Gillis, Irene Martin, Walter H B Demczuk, Melissa K Andrew, Guy Boivin, William Bowie, Karen Green, Jennie Johnstone, Mark Loeb, Anne E McCarthy, Allison McGeer, Makeda Semret, Sylvie Trottier, Louis Valiquette, Duncan Webster, Shelly A McNeil

CONCLUSION(S): Along with IPD, pCAP surveillance (bacteremic and non-bacteremic) is important as their trends may differ over time. With insufficient herd protection from PCV13 childhood immunization, or use of PPV23 in adults, this study supports direct adult immunization with PCV13 or higher valency conjugate vaccines to reduce the residual burden of pCAP and IPD.

A gender lens is needed in hepatitis C elimination research

Par : Sarah Larney, Annie Madden, Alison D Marshall, Natasha K Martin, Carla Treloar
Source : The International journal on drug policy - doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2022.103654

The World Health Organisation has established a goal of eliminating the hepatitis C virus (HCV) as a public health threat by 2030. Considerable effort is being directed towards research to support and enhance HCV treatment uptake among people who inject drugs, but there is a distinct lack of attention given to gender in this work. We argue that a gender lens is needed to make visible the limitations of current HCV elimination research, and support the development of innovative, inclusive...

Diagnosis of liver fibrosis in ageing patients with HIV at risk for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Italy and Canada: assessment of a two-tier pathway

Par : Giada Sebastiani, Jovana Milic, Claudia Gioe, Al Shaima Al Hinai, Adriana Cervo, Bertrand Lebouche, Marc Deschenes, Antonio Cascio, Giovanni Mazzola, Giovanni Guaraldi
Source : The lancet. HIV - doi:10.1016/S2352-3018(22)00069-8

BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy, liver-related mortality has increased ten-fold in ageing people with HIV. This trend is driven by ageing-related metabolic conditions that cause non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which affects 35-65% of people with HIV. Clinically significant (stage 2-4) liver fibrosis develops in over 15% of people with HIV who have NAFLD. Strategies are needed to identify people with HIV at risk for significant liver fibrosis and...

Past dynamics of HIV transmission among men who have sex with men in Montréal, Canada: a mathematical modeling study

Par : Rachael M Milwid, Yiqing Xia, Carla M Doyle, Joseph Cox, Gilles Lambert, Réjean Thomas, Sharmistha Mishra, Daniel Grace, Nathan J Lachowsky, Trevor A Hart, Marie-Claude Boily, Mathieu Maheu-Giroux
Source : BMC infectious diseases - doi:10.1186/s12879-022-07207-7

CONCLUSIONS: The evolving HIV landscape has contributed to the declining HIV incidence among gbMSM in Montréal. The shifting dynamics identified in this study highlight the need for continued population-level surveillance to identify gaps in the HIV care continuum and core groups on which to prioritize elimination efforts.

Changes in Youth Mental Health, Psychological Wellbeing, and Substance Use During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Rapid Review

Par : Camille Zolopa, Jacob A Burack, Roisin M O'Connor, Charlotte Corran, Jessica Lai, Emiliana Bomfim, Sarah DeGrace, Julianne Dumont, Sarah Larney, Dennis C Wendt
Source : Adolescent research review - doi:10.1007/s40894-022-00185-6

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers around the world have made efforts to assess its impact on youth mental health; however, the breadth of this topic has impeded a clear assessment of pandemic outcomes. This study aimed to address this gap by reviewing changes in youth (age ≤ 25) mental health, psychological wellbeing, substance use, and the use or delivery of relevant services during the pandemic. PubMed and Embase were searched in May 2021 to conduct a rapid review of the...

Risk factors for placental human papillomavirus infection

Par : Joseph Niyibizi, Marie-Hélène Mayrand, Francois Audibert, Patricia Monnier, Paul Brassard, Louise Laporte, Julie Lacaille, Monica Zahreddine, Marie-Josée Bédard, Isabelle Girard, Diane Francoeur, Ana Maria Carceller, Jacques Lacroix, William Fraser, François Coutlée, Helen Trottier, HERITAGE study group
Source : Sexually transmitted infections - doi:10.1136/sextrans-2021-055172

CONCLUSIONS: HPV was frequently detected in the placenta of women who delivered vaginally and may be associated with host immune response characteristics.

Development and validation of an ensemble machine learning framework for detection of all-cause advanced hepatic fibrosis: a retrospective cohort study

Par : Soren Sabet Sarvestany, Jeffrey C Kwong, Amirhossein Azhie, Victor Dong, Orlando Cerocchi, Ahmed Fuad Ali, Ravikiran S Karnam, Hadi Kuriry, Mohamed Shengir, Elisa Candido, Raquel Duchen, Giada Sebastiani, Keyur Patel, Anna Goldenberg, Mamatha Bhat
Source : The Lancet. Digital health - doi:10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00270-3

BACKGROUND: Cirrhosis is the result of advanced scarring (or fibrosis) of the liver, and is often diagnosed once decompensation with associated complications has occurred. Current non-invasive tests to detect advanced liver fibrosis have limited performance, with many indeterminate classifications. We aimed to identify patients with advanced liver fibrosis of all-causes using machine learning algorithms (MLAs).

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