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Influence of letermovir treatment on gut inflammation in people living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy: protocol of the open-label controlled randomised CIAO study

Par : Léna Royston, Stéphane Isnard, Carolina A Berini, Simeng Bu, Peter L Lakatos, Talat Bessissow, Nicolas Chomont, Marina Klein, Bertrand Lebouché, Alexandra de Pokomandy, Nadine Kronfli, Cecilia T Costiniuk, Rejean Thomas, Cécile Tremblay, Guy Boivin, Jean-Pierre Routy
Source : BMJ open - doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2022-067640

INTRODUCTION: Chronic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is very frequent in people living with HIV (PLWH). High anti-CMV IgG titres, which may be linked to transient CMV replication, have been associated with earlier mortality, CD8 T-cell expansion, lower CD4/CD8 ratio and increased T-cell senescence. We previously showed that anti-CMV IgG titres correlated with gut permeability in PLWH on antiretroviral therapy (ART), which was associated with microbial translocation, systemic inflammation and...

Spike recognition and neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron subvariants elicited after the third dose of mRNA vaccine

Par : Alexandra Tauzin, Alexandre Nicolas, Shilei Ding, Mehdi Benlarbi, Halima Medjahed, Debashree Chatterjee, Katrina Dionne, Shang Yu Gong, Gabrielle Gendron-Lepage, Yuxia Bo, Josée Perreault, Guillaume Goyette, Laurie Gokool, Pascale Arlotto, Chantal Morrisseau, Cécile Tremblay, Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Gaston De Serres, Inès Levade, Daniel E Kaufmann, Marceline Côté, Renée Bazin, Andrés Finzi
Source : Cell reports - doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2023.111998

Several severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron subvariants have recently emerged, becoming the dominant circulating strains in many countries. These variants contain a large number of mutations in their spike glycoprotein, raising concerns about vaccine efficacy. In this study, we evaluate the ability of plasma from a cohort of individuals that received three doses of mRNA vaccine to recognize and neutralize these Omicron subvariant spikes. We observed that BA.4/5...

Digital cough monitoring - A potential predictive acoustic biomarker of clinical outcomes in hospitalized COVID-19 patients

Par : Ellery Altshuler, Bouchra Tannir, Gisèle Jolicoeur, Matthew Rudd, Cyrus Saleem, Kartikeya Cherabuddi, Dominique Hélène Doré, Parav Nagarsheth, Joe Brew, Peter M Small, J Glenn Morris, Simon Grandjean Lapierre
Source : Journal of biomedical informatics - doi:10.1016/j.jbi.2023.104283

PURPOSE: Recent developments in the field of artificial intelligence and acoustics have made it possible to objectively monitor cough in clinical and ambulatory settings. We hypothesized that time patterns of objectively measured cough in COVID-19 patients could predict clinical prognosis and help rapidly identify patients at high risk of intubation or death.

Hepatitis A and B vaccine uptake and immunisation among men who have sex with men seeking PrEP: a substudy of the ANRS IPERGAY trial

Par : Paul Le Turnier, Isabelle Charreau, Audrey Gabassi, Diane Carette, Laurent Cotte, Gilles Pialoux, Cécile Tremblay, Bruno Spire, Marie-Laure Chaix, Laurence Meyer, Catherine Capitant, Constance Delaugerre, François Raffi, Jean-Michel Molina, ANRS IPERGAY study group
Source : Sexually transmitted infections - doi:10.1136/sextrans-2022-055634

Vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recommended in men who have sex with men (MSM). We assessed HAV and HBV vaccine uptake in the non-immune participants and their immunisation during follow-up of the ANRS IPERGAY (Intervention Préventive de l'Exposition aux Risques avec et pour les Gays) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial.During the ANRS IPERGAY trial among MSM (NCT01473472), vaccination against HAV and HBV was offered free of charge to all non-immune...

Associations between the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B among people who inject drugs and country-level characteristics: An ecological analysis

Par : Anjalee Syangbo, Matthew Hickman, Samantha Colledge-Frisby, Janni Leung, Jason Grebely, Sarah Larney, Louisa Degenhardt, Adam Trickey
Source : Drug and alcohol review - doi:10.1111/dar.13595

INTRODUCTION: Globally, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a leading cause of liver disease. People who inject drugs (PWID) are at greater risk than the general population of contracting HBV. This risk could depend on societal factors in different countries. We investigated the associations between country-level chronic HBV prevalence in PWID with national indicators of development and prevalence of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV).

Safety and Tolerability of Oral Cannabinoids in People Living with HIV on Long-Term ART: A Randomized, Open-Label, Interventional Pilot Clinical Trial (CTNPT 028)

Par : Ralph-Sydney Mboumba Bouassa, Judy Needham, Dana Nohynek, Joel Singer, Terry Lee, Florian Bobeuf, Suzanne Samarani, Lina Del Balso, Natalie Paisible, Claude Vertzagias, Giada Sebastiani, Shari Margolese, Enrico Mandarino, Marina Klein, Bertrand Lebouché, Joseph Cox, Marie-Josée Brouillette, Jean-Pierre Routy, Jason Szabo, Réjean Thomas, Emmanuel Huchet, Antonio Vigano, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Cecilia T Costiniuk
Source : Biomedicines - doi:10.3390/biomedicines10123168

CONCLUSIONS: In PLWH, cannabinoids seem generally safe and well-tolerated, though larger studies are needed. Screening for occult liver pathology should be performed and hepatic enzymes monitored, especially with high CBD doses.

Evaluation of Nanopore sequencing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug susceptibility testing and outbreak investigation: a genomic analysis

Par : Michael B Hall, Marie Sylvianne Rabodoarivelo, Anastasia Koch, Anzaan Dippenaar, Sophie George, Melanie Grobbelaar, Robin Warren, Timothy M Walker, Helen Cox, Sebastien Gagneux, Derrick Crook, Tim Peto, Niaina Rakotosamimanana, Simon Grandjean Lapierre, Zamin Iqbal
Source : The Lancet. Microbe - doi:10.1016/S2666-5247(22)00301-9

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has been widely used for genotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) and outbreak investigation. For both applications, Illumina technology is used by most public health laboratories; however, Nanopore technology developed by Oxford Nanopore Technologies has not been thoroughly evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine whether Nanopore sequencing data can provide equivalent information to Illumina for transmission...

Virological Outcomes After Switching to Abacavir/Lamivudine/Dolutegravir Combined with Adherence Support in People Living with HIV with Poor Adherence: A Phase IV, Multicentre Randomized Prospective Open Label Study (TriiADD-CTN 286)

Par : Marina B Klein, Jim Young, David Ortiz-Paredes, Shouao Wang, Sharon Walmsley, Alexander Wong, Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Neora Pick, Brian Conway, Jonathan Angel, Jean-Guy Baril, Chris Fraser, Bertrand Lebouché, Darrell H S Tan, Roger Sandre, Sylvie Trottier, Hansi Peiris, Jayamarx Jayaraman, Joel Singer, CTN 286 Study Investigators
Source : Patient preference and adherence - doi:10.2147/PPA.S379065

CONCLUSION: Results of our trial are consistent with a slight improvement in viral suppression in a vulnerable population when a single tablet regimen is combined with patient-level adherence support. Beyond treatment simplicity and tolerability, tailored interventions addressing stigma and social determinants of health are still needed. The numerous challenges we encountered illustrate how randomised trials may not be the best approach for assessing adherence interventions in vulnerable...

Effect of autogenic training on quality of life and symptoms in people living with HIV: A mixed method randomized controlled trial

Par : Maria Pilar Ramirez Garcia, Jérôme Leclerc-Loiselle, José Côté, Marie-Josée Brouillette, Réjean Thomas
Source : Complementary therapies in clinical practice - doi:10.1016/j.ctcp.2022.101716

CONCLUSION: AT seems to improve sleep quality and could improve some dimensions of quality of life and other symptoms among people living with HIV. Further studies are needed to confirm these results.

Oral vitamin D supplemental therapy to attain a desired serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in essential healthcare teams

Par : Banafshe Hosseini, Cécile L Tremblay, Cristina Longo, Shirin Glochi, John H White, Caroline Quach, Louis-Georges Ste-Marie, Robert W Platt, Francine M Ducharme

CONCLUSION: The vitamin D supplementation rapidly and safely raised 25(OH)D levels to sufficient levels for a biological effect. Similarly high adherence to study procedures was observed with virtual and in-person participation.

Monkeypox in Montréal: Epidemiology, Phylogenomics, and Public Health Response to a Large North American Outbreak

Par : Luke B Harrison, Geneviève Bergeron, Geneviève Cadieux, Hugues Charest, Judith Fafard, Inès Levade, Antoine Cloutier Blais, Emmanuelle Huchet, Benoît Trottier, Dragos Vlad, Jason Szabo, Réjean Thomas, Sébastien Poulin, Christina Greenaway, Gerasimos J Zaharatos, Matthew Oughton, Arpita Chakravarti, Robert Pilarski, Andrew Bui-Nguyen, Khadija Benomar, Michael D Libman, Donald C Vinh, Ana T Duggan, Morag Graham, Marina B Klein, Sapha Barkati
Source : Annals of internal medicine - doi:10.7326/M22-2699

CONCLUSION: A large outbreak of monkeypox occurred in Montréal, primarily among MSM. Successful control of the outbreak rested on early and sustained engagement with the affected communities and rapid offer of PrEP vaccination to at-risk persons.

Targeted exercises can improve biomechanical markers in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: A secondary analysis from a cluster randomized controlled trial

Par : Alix Cagnin, Manon Choinière, Nathalie J Bureau, Madeleine Durand, Neila Mezghani, Nathaly Gaudreault, Nicola Hagemeister
Source : The Knee - doi:10.1016/j.knee.2022.10.008

CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that targeted exercises can improve biomechanical markers in knee OA patients compared with CPC treatment. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and refine the biomechanical markers to address to maximize patients' clinical outcomes.

Differential immune transcriptomic profiles between vaccinated and resolved HCV reinfected subjects

Par : Sabrina Mazouz, Eduardo Salinas, Nathalie Bédard, Ali Filali, Omar Khedr, Leo Swadling, Mohamed S Abdel-Hakeem, Asiyah Siddique, Eleanor Barnes, Julie Bruneau, Arash Grakoui, Naglaa H Shoukry
Source : PLoS pathogens - doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1010968

Successive episodes of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represent a unique natural rechallenge experiment to define correlates of long-term protective immunity and inform vaccine development. We applied a systems immunology approach to characterize longitudinal changes in the peripheral blood transcriptomic signatures in eight subjects who spontaneously resolved two successive HCV infections. Furthermore, we compared these signatures with those induced by an HCV T cell-based vaccine regimen. We...

The Relationship between Visceral Adiposity and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Diagnosed by Controlled Attenuation Parameter in People with HIV: A Pilot Study

Par : Giada Sebastiani, Nathalie Paisible, Cecilia Costiniuk, Joseph Cox, Dana Kablawi, Marina B Klein, Nadine Kronfli, Jean-Pierre Routy, Julian Falutz, Bertrand Lebouché, Giovanni Guaraldi
Source : Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland) - doi:10.3390/diagnostics12112590

CONCLUSIONS: NAFLD diagnosed by CAP is associated with VAT in PWH independently of anthropometric measures of obesity. CAP may be a potential diagnostic marker of visceral adiposity in the practice of HIV medicine.

Association between the development of sub-clinical cardiovascular disease and HIV reservoir markers in people with HIV on suppressive ART

Par : Isabelle Turcotte, Mohamed El-Far, Manel Sadouni, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Ali Filali-Mouhim, Rémi Fromentin, Annie Chamberland, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian, Jean-Guy Baril, Benoit Trottier, Réjean Thomas, Cécile L Tremblay, Madeleine Durand, Nicolas Chomont
Source : Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America - doi:10.1093/cid/ciac874

We report that PWH diagnosed with coronary artery atherosclerotic plaques display higher levels of HIV DNA compared to those without atherosclerotic plaques. In a multivariable prediction model that included 27 traditional and HIV-related risk factors, measures of HIV DNA were among the most important predictors of atherosclerotic plaque formation.

Evaluation of the performance of multiple immunoassay diagnostic platforms on the National Microbiology Laboratory SARS-CoV-2 National Serology Panel

Par : Antonia Dibernardo, Nikki Pl Toledo, Alyssia Robinson, Carla Osiowy, Elizabeth Giles, Jacqueline Day, L Robbin Lindsay, Michael A Drebot, Timothy F Booth, Tamara Pidduck, Ashley Baily, Carmen L Charlton, Graham Tipples, Jamil N Kanji, Gino Brochu, Amanda Lang, Christian Therrien, Mélina Bélanger-Collard, Sylvie-Nancy Beaulac, Brian M Gilfix, Guy Boivin, Marie-Ève Hamelin, Julie Carbonneau, Simon Lévesque, Philippe Martin, Andrés Finzi, Gabrielle Gendron-Lepage, Guillaume Goyette, Mehdi Benlarbi, Romain Gasser, Claude Fortin, Valérie Martel-Lafferrière, Myriam Lavoie, Renée Guérin, Louis-Patrick Haraoui, Christian Renaud, Craig Jenkins, Sheila F O'Brien, Steven J Drews, Valerie Conrod, Vanessa Tran, Bill Awrey, Robert Scheuermann, Alan DuPuis, Anne Payne, Casey Warszycki, Roxie Girardin, William Lee, George Zahariadis, Lei Jiao, Robert Needle, James Cordenbach, Jerry Zaharatos, Kellee Taylor, Marty Teltscher, Matthew Miller, May Elsherif, Peter Robertson, Jason L Robinson
Source : Journal of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada = Journal officiel de l'Association pour la microbiologie medicale et l'infectiologie Canada - doi:10.3138/jammi-2021-0026

CONCLUSION: This proficiency study demonstrates that most of the SARS-CoV-2 serological assays utilized by provincial public health or hospital laboratories in Canada have acceptable sensitivity and excellent specificity.

Changes in supervised consumption site use and emergency interventions in Montréal, Canada in the first twelve months of the COVID-19 pandemic: An interrupted time series study

Par : Camille Zolopa, Thomas D Brothers, Pascale Leclerc, Jean-François Mary, Carole Morissette, Julie Bruneau, Elaine Hyshka, Natasha K Martin, Sarah Larney
Source : The International journal on drug policy - doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2022.103894

CONCLUSION: Reduced SCS use and increasing emergency interventions at SCS are cause for serious concern. Findings suggest increased availability of novel synthetic opioids in Montréal, heightening overdose risk.

Trends in Use of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy and Treatment Response from 2000 to 2016 in the Canadian Observational Cohort (CANOC): A Longitudinal Cohort Study

Par : Alison R McClean, Jason Trigg, Claudette Cardinal, Mona Loutfy, Curtis Cooper, Abigail Kroch, Mostafa Shokoohi, Nimâ Machouf, Réjean Thomas, Marina B Klein, Deborah V Kelly, Alexander Wong, Stephen Sanche, Julio S G Montaner, Robert S Hogg
Source : The Canadian journal of hospital pharmacy - doi:10.4212/cjhp.3234

CONCLUSIONS: Concordance with treatment guidelines was demonstrated over time with respect to cART prescribing and immunologic and virologic response.

A boost with SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine elicits strong humoral responses independently of the interval between the first two doses

Par : Alexandra Tauzin, Shang Yu Gong, Debashree Chatterjee, Shilei Ding, Mark M Painter, Rishi R Goel, Guillaume Beaudoin-Bussières, Lorie Marchitto, Marianne Boutin, Annemarie Laumaea, James Okeny, Gabrielle Gendron-Lepage, Catherine Bourassa, Halima Medjahed, Guillaume Goyette, Justine C Williams, Yuxia Bo, Laurie Gokool, Chantal Morrisseau, Pascale Arlotto, Renée Bazin, Judith Fafard, Cécile Tremblay, Daniel E Kaufmann, Gaston De Serres, Jonathan Richard, Marceline Côté, Ralf Duerr, Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Allison R Greenplate, E John Wherry, Andrés Finzi
Source : Cell reports - doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2022.111554

Due to the recrudescence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections worldwide, mainly caused by the Omicron variant of concern (VOC) and its sub-lineages, several jurisdictions are administering an mRNA vaccine boost. Here, we analyze humoral responses induced after the second and third doses of an mRNA vaccine in naive and previously infected donors who received their second dose with an extended 16-week interval. We observe that the extended interval elicits...

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