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Prevalence of opioid dependence in New South Wales, Australia, 2014-16: Indirect estimation from multiple data sources using a Bayesian approach

Par : Beatrice C Downing, Matthew Hickman, Nicola R Jones, Sarah Larney, Michael J Sweeting, Yixin Xu, Michael Farrell, Louisa Degenhardt, Hayley E Jones
Source : Addiction (Abingdon, England) - doi:10.1111/add.16268

CONCLUSIONS: A Bayesian statistical approach to estimate prevalence from multiple adverse event types simultaneously calculates that the estimated prevalence of opioid dependence in NSW, Australia in 2016 was 0.92%, higher than previous estimates.

Paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome in Canada: population-based surveillance and role of SARS-CoV-2 linkage

Par : Tala El Tal, Marie-Paule Morin, Shaun K Morris, Daniel S Farrar, Roberta A Berard, Fatima Kakkar, Charlotte Moore Hepburn, Krista Baerg, Camille Beaufils, Terri-Lyn Bennett, Susanne M Benseler, Guillaume Beaudoin-Bussières, Kevin Chan, Claude Cyr, Nagib Dahdah, Elizabeth J Donner, Olivier Drouin, Rojiemiahd Edjoc, Maryem Eljaouhari, Joanne E Embree, Catherine Farrell, Andrés Finzi, Sarah Forgie, Ryan Giroux, Kristopher T Kang, Melanie King, Melanie Laffin Thibodeau, Bianca Lang, Ronald M Laxer, Thuy Mai Luu, Brian W McCrindle, Julia Orkin, Jesse Papenburg, Catherine M Pound, Victoria E Price, Jean-Philippe Proulx-Gauthier, Rupeena Purewal, Manish Sadarangani, Marina I Salvadori, Roseline Thibeault, Karina A Top, Isabelle Viel-Thériault, Elie Haddad, Rosie Scuccimarri, Rae S M Yeung
Source : Pediatric research - doi:10.1038/s41390-023-02668-1

CONCLUSIONS: Although rare, 30% of PIMS hospitalizations required ICU or respiratory/hemodynamic support, particularly those with positive SARS-CoV-2 linkages.

Prevention of COVID-19 with oral vitamin D supplemental therapy in essential healthcare teams (PROTECT): protocol for a multicentre, triple-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial

Par : Francine Monique Ducharme, Cécile Tremblay, Shirin Golchi, Banafsheh Hosseini, Cristina Longo, John H White, Decio Coviello, Caroline Quach, Louis-Georges Ste-Marie, Robert W Platt
Source : BMJ open - doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2022-064058

INTRODUCTION: In the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) were at high risk of infection due to their exposure to COVID infections. HCWs were the backbone of our healthcare response to this pandemic; every HCW withdrawn or lost due to infection had a substantial impact on our capacity to deliver care. Primary prevention was a key approach to reduce infection. Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in Canadians and worldwide. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to significantly...

Human Papillomavirus Transmission and Persistence in Pregnant Women and Neonates

Par : Pranamika Khayargoli, Joseph Niyibizi, Marie-Hélène Mayrand, François Audibert, Patricia Monnier, Paul Brassard, Louise Laporte, Julie Lacaille, Monica Zahreddine, Marie-Josée Bédard, Isabelle Girard, Diane Francoeur, Ana Maria Carceller, Jacques Lacroix, William Fraser, François Coutlée, Helen Trottier, HERITAGE Study Group
Source : JAMA pediatrics - doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2023.1283

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study, vaginal HPV was frequently detected in pregnant women. Perinatal transmission was infrequent, and in this cohort, no infection detected at birth persisted at 6 months. Although HPV was detected in placentas, it remains difficult to differentiate contamination vs true infection.

Cohort profile: POPPY II - a population-based cohort examining the patterns and outcomes of prescription opioid use in New South Wales, Australia

Par : Natasa Gisev, Sallie-Anne Pearson, Timothy Dobbins, Luke Buizen, Thomas Murphy, Andrew Wilson, Fiona Blyth, Adrian Dunlop, Sarah Larney, David C Currow, Richard P Mattick, Louisa Degenhardt
Source : BMJ open - doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2022-068310

PURPOSE: The POPPY II cohort is an Australian state-based cohort linking data for a population of individuals prescribed opioid medicines, constructed to allow a robust examination of the long-term patterns and outcomes of prescription opioid use.

Prognostic value of non-invasive scores based on liver stiffness measurement, spleen diameter and platelets in HIV-infected patients

Par : Amine Benmassaoud, Juan Macias, Adèle Delamarre, Anaïs Corma-Gomez, Giovanni Guaraldi, Jovana Milic, Jürgen K Rockstroh, Kathrin Van Bremen, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Akhilesh Mulay, Jennifer Price, Lucy J Garvey, Maud Lemoine, Dana Kablawi, Bertrand Lebouche, Marina B Klein, Luz R Ballesteros, Christopher Boesecke, Filippo Schepis, Sanjay Bhagani, Graham Cooke, Annalisa Berzigotti, Kyoko Hirose, Juan A Pineda, Agnihotram V Ramanakumar, Victor De-Ledinghen, Sahar Saeed, Giada Sebastiani
Source : Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver - doi:10.1111/liv.15605

CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive scores based on LSM, spleen diameter and platelets predict clinical outcomes in PLWH. Composite biomarkers do not achieve higher prognostic performance compared to LSM alone.

All-cause and cause-specific mortality in individuals with an alcohol-related emergency or hospital inpatient presentation: A retrospective data linkage cohort study

Par : Janni Leung, Vivian Chiu, Nicola Man, Wing See Yuen, Timothy Dobbins, Adrian Dunlop, Natasa Gisev, Wayne Hall, Sarah Larney, Sallie-Anne Pearson, Louisa Degenhardt, Amy Peacock
Source : Addiction (Abingdon, England) - doi:10.1111/add.16218

CONCLUSIONS: In New South Wales, Australia, people who came in contact with an emergency department or hospital for an alcohol-related presentation between 2005 and 2014 were at higher risk of mortality than the general New South Wales population during the same period.

Complexities and benefits of adopting next-generation sequencing-based tuberculosis diagnostics: a qualitative study among stakeholders in low and high-income countries

Par : Simon Grandjean Lapierre, Elysée Nouvet, Catherine-Audrey Boutin, Marie-Sylvianne Rabodoarivelo, Omar Mahboob, Maxwell J Smith, Niaina Rakotosamimanana
Source : BMJ open - doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2022-066651

CONCLUSION: There persists important lack of familiarity with TB next-generation sequencing (TB NGS) applications among stakeholders in Canada and Madagascar. This translates into skepticism on the evidence underlying its use and its true potential value added within global public health systems. If deployed, TB NGS testing should be integrated with clinical and surveillance programmes. Although this is perceived as a priority, leadership and funding responsibilities for this integration to...

Fibroscan-aspartate aminotransferase (FAST) score predicts liver-related outcomes, but not extra-hepatic events, in a multicenter cohort of people with HIV

Par : Giada Sebastiani, Jovana Milic, Dana Kablawi, Claudia Gioe', Al Shaima Al Hinai, Bertrand Lebouché, Emmanuel Tsochatzis, Jemima Finkel, Luz Ramos Ballesteros, Agnihotram V Ramanakumar, Sanjay Bhagani, Amine Benmassaoud, Giovanni Mazzola, Antonio Cascio, Giovanni Guaraldi
Source : Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America - doi:10.1093/cid/ciad203

CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of PWH without viral hepatitis coinfection may have NASH with significant liver fibrosis. FAST score predicts liver-related outcomes and can help risk stratification and management in this high-risk population.

On-demand, hospital-based, severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genomic epidemiology to support nosocomial outbreak investigations: A prospective molecular epidemiology study

Par : Patrick Benoit, Gisèle Jolicoeur, Floriane Point, Chantal Soucy, Karine Normand, Philippe Morency-Potvin, Simon Gagnon, Daniel E Kaufmann, Cécile Tremblay, François Coutlée, P Richard Harrigan, Isabelle Hardy, Martin Smith, Patrice Savard, Simon Grandjean Lapierre
Source : Antimicrobial stewardship & healthcare epidemiology : ASHE - doi:10.1017/ash.2023.119

CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 genomic sequencing can refute or strengthen transmission hypotheses from conventional nosocomial epidemiological investigations, and guide implementation of setting-specific control strategies. Our study represents a template for prospective, on site, outbreak-focused SARS-CoV-2 sequencing. This approach may become increasingly relevant in a COVID-19 endemic state where systematic sequencing within centralized surveillance programs is not available.

Use of non-medical cannabis in epilepsy: A scoping review

Par : Jimmy Li, Cassandra C Areal, Dènahin Hinnoutondji Toffa, Daphné Citherlet, Charles Deacon, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Mark Robert Keezer, Dang Khoa Nguyen
Source : Frontiers in neurology - doi:10.3389/fneur.2023.1132106

CONCLUSION: The literature on NMC use in PWE is sparse and heterogeneous, with many salient knowledge gaps. Further research is necessary to better understanding the experience, habits, and beliefs of PWE pertaining to NMC.

Humoral Responses against BQ.1.1 Elicited after Breakthrough Infection and SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination

Par : Alexandra Tauzin, Mehdi Benlarbi, Halima Medjahed, Yves Grégoire, Josée Perreault, Gabrielle Gendron-Lepage, Laurie Gokool, Chantal Morrisseau, Pascale Arlotto, Cécile Tremblay, Daniel E Kaufmann, Valérie Martel-Laferrière, Inès Levade, Marceline Côté, Gaston De Serres, Renée Bazin, Andrés Finzi
Source : Vaccines - doi:10.3390/vaccines11020242

The Omicron BQ.1.1 variant is now the major SARS-CoV-2 circulating strain in many countries. Because of the many mutations present in its Spike glycoprotein, this variant is resistant to humoral responses elicited by monovalent mRNA vaccines. With the goal to improve immune responses against Omicron subvariants, bivalent mRNA vaccines have recently been approved in several countries. In this study, we measure the capacity of plasma from vaccinated individuals, before and after a fourth dose of...

Phenotypic characterization of single CD4+ T cells harboring genetically intact and inducible HIV genomes

Par : Caroline Dufour, Corentin Richard, Marion Pardons, Marta Massanella, Antoine Ackaoui, Ben Murrell, Bertrand Routy, Réjean Thomas, Jean-Pierre Routy, Rémi Fromentin, Nicolas Chomont
Source : Nature communications - doi:10.1038/s41467-023-36772-x

The phenotype of the rare HIV-infected cells persisting during antiretroviral therapies (ART) remains elusive. We developed a single-cell approach that combines the phenotypic analysis of HIV-infected cells with near full-length sequencing of their associated proviruses to characterize the viral reservoir in 6 male individuals on suppressive ART. We show that individual cells carrying clonally expanded identical proviruses display very diverse phenotypes, indicating that cellular proliferation...

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Increases Cardiovascular Risk in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

Par : Dana Kablawi, Faisal Aljohani, Chiara Saroli Palumbo, Sophie Restellini, Alain Bitton, Gary Wild, Waqqas Afif, Peter L Lakatos, Talat Bessissow, Giada Sebastiani
Source : Crohn's & colitis 360 - doi:10.1093/crocol/otad004

CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of cardiovascular risk should be targeted in IBD patients with NAFLD, particularly if they have longer IBD duration and ulcerative colitis.

Does opioid agonist treatment reduce overdose mortality risk in people who are older or have physical comorbidities? Cohort study using linked administrative health data in New South Wales, Australia, 2002-17

Par : Sarah Larney, Nicola R Jones, Matthew Hickman, Suzanne Nielsen, Robert Ali, Louisa Degenhardt
Source : Addiction (Abingdon, England) - doi:10.1111/add.16178

CONCLUSIONS: Opioid agonist treatment (OAT) appears to reduce mortality risk in people with opioid use disorder who are older or who have physical comorbidities. Opioid overdose mortality during OAT with buprenorphine appears to be lower and reduced in clients with circulatory and respiratory diseases compared with OAT with methadone.

Infection of the Ex Vivo Tonsil Model by HTLV-1 Envelope-Pseudotyped Viruses

Par : Mélanie Langlois, Salim Bounou, Michel J Tremblay, Benoit Barbeau
Source : Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland) - doi:10.3390/pathogens12020182

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causal agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. Its tropism is known to be broad in cultured cell lines, while in vivo data support a more selective transmission toward CD4+ T cells and the limited targeting of other hematopoietic cell types. An essential condition for HTLV-1 infection is cell-to-cell contact, to which both virological synapse and viral biofilm have been suggested to...

Genomic Sequencing from Sputum for Tuberculosis Disease Diagnosis, Lineage Determination, and Drug Susceptibility Prediction

Par : Kayzad Nilgiriwala, Marie-Sylvianne Rabodoarivelo, Michael B Hall, Grishma Patel, Ayan Mandal, Shefali Mishra, Fanantenana Randria Andrianomanana, Kate Dingle, Gillian Rodger, Sophie George, Derrick W Crook, Sarah Hoosdally, Nerges Mistry, Niaina Rakotosamimanana, Zamin Iqbal, Simon Grandjean Lapierre, Timothy M Walker
Source : Journal of clinical microbiology - doi:10.1128/jcm.01578-22

Universal access to drug susceptibility testing for newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients is recommended. Access to culture-based diagnostics remains limited, and targeted molecular assays are vulnerable to emerging resistance mutations. Improved protocols for direct-from-sputum Mycobacterium tuberculosis sequencing would accelerate access to comprehensive drug susceptibility testing and molecular typing. We assessed a thermo-protection buffer-based direct-from-sample M. tuberculosis...

Label-Free SERS for Rapid Differentiation of SARS-CoV-2-Induced Serum Metabolic Profiles in Non-Hospitalized Adults

Par : Malama Chisanga, Hannah Williams, Denis Boudreau, Joelle N Pelletier, Sylvie Trottier, Jean-Francois Masson
Source : Analytical chemistry - doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.2c04514

COVID-19 represents a multi-system infectious disease with broad-spectrum manifestations, including changes in host metabolic processes connected to the disease pathogenesis. Understanding biochemical dysregulation patterns as a consequence of COVID-19 illness promises to be crucial for tracking disease course and clinical outcomes. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has attracted considerable interest in biomedical diagnostics for the sensitive detection of intrinsic profiles of unique...

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